This post is intended for the Arduino hackers, who need to make bootloaded Arduino ICs. The fuse bit settings and hex files used are for Arduino Uno R3, but the same method can be used for any Arduino board.
Fresh ICs cannot be used directly to replace Arduino ICs, but with some bootloading techniques it can be done. First off all a bootloader hex file should be loaded to the new IC and appropriate fuse bit should be set.
The tools required for the purpose are
1) External programmer like USBASP or another Arduino board.
2) A project board for programming the new IC.
USBASP(can be purchased from this link) uses the the following 10-pin standard FRC connector. Using a suitable project board for your target IC(you can even realize it on a breadboard easily), connect the 10 pin FRC Cable to the socket. The connector details are shown below.
A suitable project board compatible with ATMEGA328 PDIP ICs and USBASP connector can be purchased from this link.
Burn the following FuseBits to the IC using AVRDude GUI program freely available from here. The FuseBits for ATMEGA328 on Arduino Uno R3 are as follows
Low Fuse -- FF
High Fuse -- DE
Write the bootloader file which can be downloaded from here. Finally lock fuses as follows, for preventing bootloader overwriting accidentally. User may skip this step, but its advised to do so.
Entended Fuse -- 05
Lock Fuse -- 3F
Note: The USBASP driver need to be installed for detection in Windows. Recent Linux distributions already comes with the driver builtin.
Put the bootloaded Arduino IC into the board. Now the new IC can run Arduino sketches from the Arduino IDE.